The Southwestern region of the USA is a vast area with diverse reliefs, which cause various climate conditions. The region is determined by arid deserts and forest areas, where the climate is milder then within. Thus, Kunkel at al. (2013) pointed out, “A notable feature of the climate of the interior Southwest is a summer peak in precipitation caused by a continental-scale shift in wind flow known as the North American Monsoon” (p. 11). According to the authors, this phenomenon frequently appears in Arizona and New Mexico. It brings a half of the annual precipitation in July and August. Nowadays, climate changes are admitted all around the globe. Scientists associate it with the external and internal Earth processes. Thus, the exposure of fluctuating intensity of solar radiation determines external impacts. In “A blanket around the Earth”, the author stressed, “the sun is the fundamental source of energy that drives our climate system” (Jenkins, n.d.a). According to this, solar activity is directly related to climate changes. However, most scientists admit that mainly the greenhouse effects cause weather changes. Moreover, it should be taken into account that the Erath orbit and axis tend to change. Undeniably, this phenomenon has a crucial impact on climate and other land processes. In addition, the scientists argue that population growth impacts the global environment and climate changes.
At first sight, it is difficult to realize interrelation between global climate change and geological disasters. Nonetheless, scientists have found evidence of climate change’s impact on volcanic activity and the occurrence of earthquakes basing on the examining the last glacial period. They found out that climate changes of that period coincided with frequent geological activity. Thus, McGuire released, “during the long preceding glaciation, the weight of ice some two kilometers thick over Iceland maintained high pressures underground that kept magma at the root of volcanoes solid and suppressed eruptions” (Pears, 2012). For the reason of glaciers’ melting, the pressure on the land decreased, and magma reproduction increased. This phenomenon entailed the chain of volcanic eruptions. McGuire admitted, “From the Eifel Mountains of Germany to the Chilean Andes, and from California to Kamchatka, volcanoes were awakened” (Pears, 2012). He assures that volcanoes are affected by each change of the external environment.
Global warming causes ice melting. Its evaporation, in turn, leads to the increased precipitations and greenhouse effect. “For earthquakes, the evidence points to changes in sea levels, as well as the melting of ice, ”stressed McGuire (Pears, 2012). Alterations in the amount of ice and ocean level lead to the change of its pressure on the surface. Hence, changes begin to occur within Earth crust by means of the tectonic plates shifting. This shifting induces earthquakes. The scientists see direct relation between fluctuation of the sea level and seismic activity. They observed the change of the sea level after El Nino, which, in turn, led to regular earthquakes. In “Could a changing climate set off volcanoes and quakes?”, it is released, “low atmospheric pressure in the heart of typhoons was sufficient to trigger slow earthquakes in strata of Taiwan” (Pears, 2012). However, the scientists from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deny the fact that the Earth reacts on climate change. Nonetheless, the Earth is, undoubtedly, a living organism, and it would respond to any change and interference. Earthquakes are the result of changeable external pressure on the crust.
Monsoon is another climate extreme, which supposedly may be impacted by global climate changes. This natural phenomenon brings environmental recovery and hazards. In Arizona, monsoons appear after a dry period. They provide a half of annual precipitation in the region. At the same time, it implies storms and strong winds. Monsoons occur due to the heating of the land during the hot season. Southwestern desert areas and the Pacific Ocean are heated simultaneously. However, the ocean absorbs the heat; accordingly, it allows perpetuating a lower air temperature. For this reason, the atmospheric pressure varies, and wind direction changes. This phenomenon is identified as monsoon. Monsoon cycle terminates after temperature difference becomes minimal. According to the International Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, it is possible to state that the scientists have not come to a consensus whether climate change would impact monsoons frequency or not. However, they admit, “For the model with suppressed monsoon activity, the controlling influence may result from higher air temperatures that reduce the number of days in which the air temperature falls bellow the dew point temperature” (Guido, 2013). Nonetheless, the scientists argue that the continuation of temperature rise may lead to strengthening monsoon cycles.
Location features of Arizona, undoubtedly, imply a kind of climatic and seismic danger. On the one hand, it is located not far from the Pacific Ocean, which brings monsoons, strong winds, and wet climate. As it was already mentioned, increased vapors lead to the increased precipitations, which, in turn, cause changes in water temperature in the ocean. The changed temperature causes changing of the atmospheric pressure. As a result, monsoons, strong winds and rains appear. On the other hand, Arizona is located on the border of the Pacific and North-American tectonic plates. Hence, changes in the ocean level and active movements of the ocean waters lead to shifting of the Pacific plate. Whereby, earthquakes may appear.
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Tangible climate changes may deeply influence different spheres of people’s life and their activities. Different areas are vulnerable to different changes. It is admitted that “Regions of extensive urban development are more vulnerable to heat island effects and flash flooding, whereas regions of extensive agricultural development may be especially vulnerable to shifts in precipitation patterns and related shifts in irrigation demands” (“Regional climate information and modeling”). Global climate changes are not very visible for ordinary people. Nonetheless, the scientists have been following climate changes for ages. Therefore, they argue that the changes which were predicted in the past tend to occur these days. Thus, they state, “Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes is breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner” (Jenkins, n.d.b). It means that global temperature is rising year in year out. The scientists pay much attention to temperature and precipitation changes. For this reason, they point out that an average annual temperature has increased over the last century in the Southwestern region. This phenomenon led to the increased duration of the freeze-free season. Precipitation trend is not as obvious as temperature one. However, it is noticeable during autumn as it was admitted by the scientists of the National Weather Service’s Cooperative Observer Network (COOP). Moreover, they stressed, “the frequency of heat waves has generally been increasing in recent decades, with a statistically significant upward trend” (“Regional climate trends and scenarios”).
Some processes such as solar activity or Earth orbit and axis change are hardly within the humans’ power. However, industry expansion brings global atmospheric changes and causes environmental deterioration. People may observe temperature changes because of the widespread industry. Unfortunately, many of them do not realize interrelation between intense human activity and global climate changes. Thus, the scientists of National Aeronautics and Space Administration stressed, “Certain gases in the atmosphere block heat from escaping” (Jenkins, n.d.a). In addition, they admitted, “global temperatures will continue to rise for decades to come, largely due to greenhouse gasses produced by human activities” (Jenkins, n.d.b). The scientists distinguish gases which do not impact directly the atmosphere, whereas feedbacks, namely water, influence temperature changes physically or chemically.
Abundant water vapor leads to the warming of the atmosphere and the increased precipitation. Thus, it becomes a cause of the greenhouse effect. Another natural gas such as carbon dioxide determines the climatic conditions. Respiration and volcano eruptions are natural sources of the gas. However, the Industrial Revolution increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Methane is one more gas, which is produced both naturally and through human activities. The scientists admitted, “methane is a far more active greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but also one which is much less abundant in the atmosphere” (Jenkins, n.d.a). “Use of commercial and organic fertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, nitric acid production, and biomass burning” (Jenkins, n.d.a) produce nitrous oxide, which is a crucial greenhouse gas. Production and release of such synthetic compound as chlorofluorocarbons is regulated these days according to an international agreement. Thus, it should be summarized that human activities lead to the change of natural greenhouse conditions. It is very important for the humanity to realize its value in the Earth life cycle and to take measures to improve the environment.
Considering the observed facts, it should be concluded that the local government’s main goal for the present days is to make the population aware that they have a great influence on the environment, ecosystem, and a general condition of the planet. Each person should be more conscious and use land recourses reasonably. It may be provided through efficient social ads or meaningful information to the public about the state of the region’s climate and the causes of its change. On the other hand, the government should take some measures regarding industry owners, according to which they would have to reduce emissions or, at least, make them less harmful to the environment. It should be inspected regularly. Violations should be punished severely. Moreover, the government should invest in scientific work sufficiently. Scientists, in turn, should response to the slightest climate changes due to the critical state of the Earth. The government of the region should identify the most efficient ways to prevent the population’s impacts on climate change and provide measures for its improvement. Humans damage the Earth and it, thereafter, is going to respond by means of climate extremes, which may lead to human’s damage.