The United States of America is comprised of different states that are run by the governors. These states include not more than 550000 citizens represented by each governor. The senators who are elected by the citizens in the majority voting process assist these governors. The senators represent the citizens in the seating where they submit their grievances. Also senators form the committee which is involved in the amendment of the constitution to meet the demands of the citizens. The governor is also responsible to oversee the overall running of the state, and to represent it in the external affairs. This paper reviews the process of passing a bill into law, and focuses on particular areas involving the state. It mainly concerns with the state of Texas.
The sitting 150 members, who are representatives or the senators, meet for a total of 140 days a year, which starts from the second Tuesday of January. One particular meeting cannot last for more than 30 days in dealing with the issues chosen by the governor. This meeting gives the representatives a role to discuss and pass decisions regarding the problems affecting the state. Many bills represented in the house need to be made laws.
The following process is involved in passing a bill to a law. A representative develops a bill by listening to the people who he/she represents. A legal bill is written by the state legislature representing best options to solve the problem. They present them in their own chambers in order to discuss it with the other members. These bills from different representatives are received in the chambers within the first 60 days.
The decision upon meeting is made by the committees’ chairpersons. They have the mandate to meet and be involved in the public hearing of their testimonies. They may decide to meet and make official stand without involving the public, also they may choose to gather for a meeting without any formal actions. However, the conclusion should be presented to the committee where the public give their views. These hearing must have a notice of five days before their official date. After the meeting, the chair of the committee gives a conclusive report obtained through the process of voting among the members is sent to the chambers.
Upon consideration, the bill is read again in the second reading where the senators give amendments, which may be adopted by the majority of votes. The members of the house vote on if to pass the bill to the third reading. Upon being passed on by the members voting by majority in the third reading, the bill is considered passed.
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If the originating chambers agree with the amendments made, the bill is signed by the presiding officer and is sent to the governor. If the members of the originating chamber do not agree with the amendments, they call for a conference committee to work the difference.
After receiving it, the governor has a maximum of 10 days to sign it. If the governor refuses to append the signature, it is returned to its origin chamber with the list of refusal reasons. If he/she does accept or reject the bill within 10 days, it is adopted as a law. The constitution is amended and the passed bill is inserted in it. This calls for the two-thirds of votes from each house in order for it to be adopted. The constitution cannot be effective until the Texas voters hold general election (House Committee on Business & Industry, Texas House of Representatives Interim Report, 42-45).
In the USA representation in the congressional district and the House of Representatives are mainly apportioned due to population. There may also be some cases where they use boundaries instead of census figures and results. Boundaries are more dynamic and prone to changes due to fluctuations in the population, which calls for redistricting and reapportionment where new districts are introduced and others are dissolved.
In Texas State, the governor who is elected by the majority from the citizens is the overall head and commander in chief of the military forces of the state. He also has total powers to control the executive branch of the state. The governor is also mandated to either approve or disapprove bills passed by the legislature in the state. He/she has the authority to grant freedom to the convicts in jails upon the approval after consultation with the responsible board. With these limited powers, the governor has no direct control for he/she has to consult with the legislature before making any critical decision regarding the state affairs. In case the governor vetoes a bill due to his opinions, because of the limited powers the legislature can still approve the bill to become a law (House Committee on Business & Industry, Texas House of Representatives Interim Report, 92). For example, Rick Perry, who in the incumbent and has the longest serving, has been able work effectively by creating a cordial and cohesive relationship with all the stakeholders of different institutions and sectors, i.e. legislature, executive, judiciary, also other sectors like the infrastructure and the agriculture which has experienced a boom growth. This has made the governor to be so influential among the individuals who run the state. Rick faced challenge when he denied and openly criticized the homosexuality in Texas, where he received opposition from the United States as a violator of the constitution, which was visible in this case. He has abundantly helped the growth in transport and the agriculture sector.
The plural executives’ means a body of individual or groups appointed in a particular area who are responsible for making laws and influential decisions on behalf of these people. The following chart represents the plural executives in the Texas state.
In order to be a governor, one must be of the age of thirty year and above, be an American citizen and a resident of the country during last five years before election. He/she must be of sound mind.
They are responsible for approving or disapproving bill into law. He has the mandate to determine how the state is run.
He/she is the commander in chief of the military forces. In addition, he gives the pardons or amnesty to the convicts.
In order to be a senator, contestants must be the age of twenty-six years and above, be an American citizen also a resident of Texas for the preceding five years.
The senators form the debate and vote in the legislation of the state. They participate in the committees that make influential changes in the state, e.g. amending the constitution. Collects the grievances from the constituents and presents in the committee chambers so that the issue can deliberated.
The paper above discussed the case of the state of Texas and represents the general overview of what is composed in the United States of America. The process in each of the states resembles each other are under the constitution of America. Although the states may appear as independent, they cannot fully make any constitutional decision to the maximum. The discussed governors and the senator depend on the overall constitution of the United States. The reviewing of the sizes of the states is done by the federal government after every census, hence the states plural officials cannot independently determine the size of their territories.