The changes in climate have a great impact on people’s health, countries’ economies and all communities. During previous two decades, all scientists and experts in environment claimed that in the 21st century, the climate and its changes should be a pressing issue that people should take into consideration.
The overwhelming majority believes that the danger of warming has a place on the whole Earth, and it is a high time to take drastic measures to prevent global warming. This standpoint is mostly supported by those scientists who suggest that it is all the industrial revolution, technological pollution, and automobile emissions that cause such a high-risk possibility of global warming (Ahrens, 1995). Yet, it would be a mistake to overlook a fact that there are still those scientists who do not blame humans for these changes. They assert that all concerns about the global warming problem are exaggerated by the media (Houghton, 2009).
Causes of Global Warming
The problem of dangerous climate changes can be connected both with human activities and nature. When the changes of climate are caused by volcanic eruptions or solar output, it is an example of the nature’s impact. On the other hand, fossil fuels, urbanization, and deforestation of rainforests are all examples of human-based influence (Singer, 2001).
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First of all, we should analyze the causes that influence the climate. The first and probably the most burning issue is connected with carbon dioxide emissions, a side product of power plants activity (Houghton, 2009). Nowadays, people cannot do without electricity, and, within some time, they have more and more needs. The fact that electricity is obtained by coal that power plants burn does not alarms the society. However, people little know that this process causes emission of the enormous amount of carbon dioxide that pollutes the atmosphere.
One more aspect is that 40% of all emissions in the U.S. are the result of electricity production. That is to say that burning coal is 93% of these emissions (Houghton, 2009). However, in the 21st century, people cannot imagine the world without the facilities and tools that simplify their lives. Moreover, no one will refuse to obtain a new gadget or facility even it endangers the climate and the Earth itself. Consequently, the IT industry produces more and more gadgets every year to satisfy the needs of rich customers. It is clear that the problem also lies in a huge and constantly developing marketing (Ahrens, 1995).
Taking everything into consideration, people need to find and develop the sources of alternative energy. Otherwise, the point that the customers are to dependent on coal for their personal needs would sooner or later result in calamity.
The second cause of global warming is also connected with the problem of carbon dioxide emissions. However, now it is because of burning gasoline. Nowadays, the society is developing at a diabolical speed, and the same happens with the car culture. This aspect accounts to 33% of the total sum of emissions in the U.S. (Singer, 2001).
As far as the population is constantly growing, people need more transport and goods to satisfy their needs. Today, a car is not a luxury, it is a primary thing that everyone should have. Car production and transportation of the goods are responsible for an increase in fossil fuels (Ahrens, 1995). The thing is that people’s customer culture does not sustain any pressures or boundaries. The more things you have, the more power you obtain.
The next cause of global warming is the agriculture and animals emissions. Methane is a greenhouse gas that is produced in anaerobic conditions by different bacteria. One more source of methane is clathrate that can be found in the structure of ice (Houghton, 2009). When there is no methane in Arctic seabed, the danger of global warming becomes especially high.
The next cause is connected with a vital problem of deforestation. That is to say, it is a clockwise effect when one problem becomes a cause of another. People use more and more wood in farms and manufacturing and usually forget that, by such activities, they precipitate global warming (Ahrens, 1995).
People use the forests on a large scale. The main problem is that they need more wood and paper products than there are produced in the nature. Naturally, everyone likes healthy and safety materials to make clothes and furniture. However, almost no one except the “green” organizations thinks about the consequences. In such a way, by using more and more wood materials and paper, people contribute to the global deforestation, which increases the global warming effect.
Forests are those lungs of the Earth that remove the dreadful results of human activities and still remain taken for granted. Forests remove from the atmosphere carbon dioxide and make the risks of global warming much lower (Singer, 2001). However, the deforestation has the opposite effect. Alas, the society is not aware enough that it destroys the nature and Earth by itself.
The last but not least cause of global warming is the usage of chemical fertilizers. In the end of the 20th century, farmers began to use much more chemical fertilizers than they did earlier. Chemical fertilizers turned out to be more effective in croplands than animal manure (Ahrens, 1995). However, widespread usage of this innovation has lead to dead-zones in the oceans. Moreover, one more danger of this activity is that over-fertilization badly influences people’s health.
Effects of Global Warming
The first effect that concerns both scientists and people is the rise of sea levels. Researchers claim that ice at the North Pole is melting at a diabolical speed (Houghton, 2009). However, the results of ice melting will influence not only the U.S., - all the nations and continents will experience its disastrous effects.
What is more, one nation is already seeking for a better place to live. It is the Maldives, an island that is already partially covered by the ocean. Mohamed Nasheed, who is the President of the Maldives, encourages people to leave their homeland and find another place. In 2008, Nasheed officially claimed that he was already saving some money for a new dwelling in case he loses the one in the Maldives. Moreover, the President encouraged people to do so due to global warming (Ahrens, 1995).
However, for the inhabitants of the Maldives, there was no other option but to choose some other country to move in. First of all, this is because of the political situation in the island. Secondly, the previous president supposed building a wall to protect an island from the water. Yet, it would be a mistake to overlook a fact that building a wall is much more expensive than moving to another place (Singer, 2001). One more aspect of this effect is that melting ice in the Arctic Ocean causes a rise in the sea level. In 2007, the researchers discovered that only in two years, the ocean lost approximately 20% of the water (Houghton, 2009).
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The next effect of global warming is an increase in storms. Scientists proved that, due to global warming, there are relatively more severe storms all over the world (Ahrens, 1995). Owing to the fact that the problem intensifies, there are high chances that, in the nearest future, there will be even much severe cyclones and hurricanes caused by the ocean temperatures. Moreover, researchers claim that this tendency is not going to stop.
One more effect is connected with massive crop failures. The statistics shows that, in the future, the families will have to choose to move somewhere else or being hungry. In 100 years, approximately 3 billion people can remain homeless (Houghton, 2009).
It is not a surprise that climate changes are mostly connected with changes in the water level. All these aspects are likely to cause poverty, famine, reduce sanitation, and prevent the economies from the development. What is more, people and animals will live in constant conditions of floods and droughts.
The other effect of global warming is the extinction of species all over the world. Scientists claim that, by 2050, approximately a million of species can become extinct (Ahrens, 1995). The thing that threatens people is that humans are not likely to survive without animals. Moreover, the number of species on a verge of extinction is growing day by day.
The last effect of global warming is the disappearance of coral reefs. Researchers proved that, by 2100, there will be no coral reefs at all (Singer, 2001). As far as many species survive only owing to these reefs, this problem is likely to cause the massive extinction of the rare species.
Advantages of Global Warming
Unless there are so many disadvantages of global warming, some scientists consider it to have several advantages. Among them are better plant growth in Arctic and Siberia, cold places will not have a need to be warmed, fewer deaths caused by cold weather, in some areas growing time can expand, etc (Singer, 2001).
The paper has defined and shortly described causes of global warming, where carbon dioxide and methane emissions, deforestation, and widespread usage of chemical fertilizers are the main. The effects of global warming are rise in the sea level, melting ice, danger for some islands to disappear, much more hurricanes and cyclones, extinction of rare species and coral reefs. Several advantages do not prevail over the disadvantages of global warming. Scientists cannot asign a single reason of the warming. Some claim that it is all human’s factor while others believe that there is no problem at all. However, the fact remains that, in the nearest future, people will have to cope with more and more problems connected with the climate changes.