Hypothesis of Scientific Investigation
First of all, we would like to consider the importance of creating a hypothesis before conducting of scientific investigation. Hypotheses are presented in all stages of scientific research, regardless of its nature - basic or applied.
Hypotheses are so common in science that scientists sometimes do not even notice the hypothetical nature of knowledge and believe that researches without preconditions such as hypotheses are possible. However, this opinion is clearly wrong. As it is known, the study is the development, formulation, and solution of problems. Each problem only occurs within some prior knowledge which includes a hypothesis; and even the premise has a hypothetical character.
Let us consider the basic functions of hypotheses in science. Firstly, hypothesis is used to summarize the experience, summation and possible extension of empirical data.
Secondly, hypotheses allow to move from theory to ideal objects of experience and they are inevitable in the extent to which it is impossible to eliminate the ideal objects from the theory. Third, hypotheses are used to focus the research and provide the directional nature of it. Fourth, the hypotheses are used for the interpretation of empirical data or other hypotheses.
Fifth, hypothesis can be used to defend other hypotheses in front of the new experimental data.
Additionally, it is very important to develop a testable experimental question in the process of conducting of scientific investigation. Testable experimental question is a set of questions, which should be solved in the process of scientific research. These questions allow determining the correctness of hypothesis. Therefore, without such questions, scientific investigation would be puzzleheaded and chaotic.
Additionally, scientific tools used for an experimental play in a laboratory investigation have a very important role, since the fulfillment of scientific experiments would be impossible without these tools.
In the process of scientific investigation it is very important to distinquish independent and dependent variables, as well as controlled parameters. As it is known, independent variables are variables that are used in the model as data, or, it is better to say, the independent variable is a reason, while the dependent variable is a consequence. Therefore, dependent variables are such variables, which a model tries to explain. Therefore, scientists try to explore about how dependent variables will be changed in case of a change of the independent variable. Controlled parameters are different parameters that should be fixed in the process of fulfillment the scientific experiment. It is very important to understand the difference between mentioned variables and parameters, since any scientific experiment will lose any purport without clear variables’ division on dependent and independent.
Additionally, there is a relationship between observation, data gathering and data interpretation, since observation is the base of all experiments and hypotheses. Hyposhesis is often built based on observations. Data gathering is a technical stage of scientific research in order to check the hypothesis correctness. Data interpretation is a final stage of scientific investigation, where scientists make a conclusion about the correlation between dependent and independent variables, as well as the hypothesis correctness.
Analyzing a large amount of numerical data is much easier if the data are represented graphically. Diagrams are used for graphical representation of numerical. Diagram is a presenting of table’s data in graphical form, which is used for analysis and comparison. In Excel 2010, you can build 11 diagram types. Histograms, graphs, pie, line and dot diagrams are most common from all types. Determination of appropriate type of graph depends on the relationship between independent and dependent variables, as well as amount of variables. Graphic representing of data has a very important role since it makes easier the process of data analyzing and data interpretation.
Additionally, it is very important to understand the difference between results predicted by the hypothesis, the results of experiment and the conclusions drawn. For example, according to the Newton’s second law of motion, the acceleration of an object depends on the object’s mass and the net force applied to the object. It is predicted result by the hypothesis. Concrete indicators of force, mass of ball, acceleration, time to reach end of ramp, and final velocity represented in the table are experimental results. Drawing conclusion is an interpretation of data received in the process of experiment. According to our drawing conclusion, acceleration can be increased by increasing the force exerted on an object, or by decreasing the mass of the object.