A war is usually a result of conflicts that cannot be solved in a peaceful manner. The difference between former and modern wars is in its methods and techniques. Such wars as cyber wars, ethnic conflicts, involving issues of nationalism and religion, the escalation of Civil War in the international system have become more sophisticated kinds of confrontation, which are likely to take place globally during next decades. Many scholars consider that cyber warfare is a global problem that affects individuals, corporations, and governments. Ethnic and religious conflicts have become a permanent reality of contemporary life. This tension between different ethnic and religious groups may be explained by the complex tendencies of the postmodern society and the desire of people to redraw state boundaries. In the case of a civil war, the distinction between military versus civilian killing becomes even less tenable than the international warfare. This paper tends to identify the importance of preventing these wars in the future and establishing peace in the world.
Cyber attacks are one of the main issues that are threatening the world nowadays. Cyber warfare comprises different acts of a cyber war, espionage, crime, terrorism, and more. It is usually difficult to understand the motives of the perpetrators. The perpetrators are acting in such a way that it is often impossible to identify them. Most observers acknowledge that hackers, who are using the latest techniques, will continue to threaten users and networks in different countries mainly in the form of cyber espionage and other cyber crimes (Dillow, 2012).
Research asserts that cyber warfare is one of the main concerns of the Pentagon today. That is why the Pentagon authorities are working on the issue of cyber weapons, which would be not only defensive, but offensive, as well. Cyber weapons are supposed to be the material of physical warfare, which will take only some days to go from development to deployment. Dillow (2012) notes, “It’s important to note that these cyber weapons won’t just be defensive, but offensive, as well. Which is troubling in its own way, since the building of new and powerful offensive weapons tends to lead to escalation.”
Cyber warfare is a global problem that affects individuals, corporations, and governments. The available information asserts that, in 2010, two-thirds of people became victims of cybercrime worldwide. The U.S. government authorities are worrying that there is a lack of vital protecting digital assets and, in most cases, private industry may defense their networks voluntarily (Lynn, 2010). Research asserts that cyber weapons are absolutely necessary, because cyber crime cost global businesses billions of dollars annually. Therefore, the government strategy is needed in order to protect the United States of America from cyber warfare. Various examples of cyber warfare prove that these criminal actions may make a lot of harm in the future if the government authorities fail to develop appropriate measures against cyber warfare.
Some observers cite that, in 2011, South Korea was under cyber attack of North Korea, which disabled several government websites. According to research, the Stuxnet worm is one of the obvious examples of cyber warfare in the recent years. In 2010, it caused physical damage to vital national security infrastructure of the USA. Some analysts speculate that it was a joint project of the USA and Israel, though nobody knows that for sure. Stuxnet was the first malicious software specifically engineered as the most advanced cyber weapon ever deployed. There is a thread that similar cyber weapons may be deployed in the future; they would destroy industrial control systems and national security infrastructures. Many countries may become targets of cyber weapons. In case with Stuxnet, Iran seems to be the primary target, as the software has damaged Iranian nuclear power plant and led to malfunction of centrifuges system.
Ethnic conflicts involving issues of nationalism and religion are another type of wars that characterize the coming decades. Such conflicts have been observed in different parts of the world (for example, former Yugoslavia, Russia, and other countries), in the recent past, and are likely to continue in the future. Ethnic conflicts and movements are a characteristic of the modern world, but their roots are dated back to the ancient antecedents (Riggs, 1999). Most observers acknowledge that authoritarian and anarchic countries heighten ethnic conflicts, and often are not able to resolve them. That is why the United States often helps these countries to overcome serious conflicts, like in Georgia, prior to Russian intervention, former Yugoslavia, and other countries. Because of the religious beliefs, many people and countries are in wars today and obviously will continue them in the future. Ethnic and religious conflicts are an escalating global problem, which needs viable solutions. It is important to figure out and understand the deeper causes to solving these conflicts.
Muller (2008) notes, “Americans also find ethnonationalism discomfiting both intellectually and morally. Social scientists go to great lengths to demonstrate that it is a product not of nature but of culture, often deliberately constructed.” Many scholars consider that ethnic and religious conflicts have become a permanent reality of contemporary life. This tension between different ethnic and religious groups may be explained by the complex tendencies of the postmodern society and the desire of people to redraw state boundaries.
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There are different variables that may protect people from ethnic and religious conflicts, such as effective governments and constitutional structure. Research asserts that, in more than fifty locations around the world, violence has taken place between people, who differ in ethnicity, religion, race, or language. These conflicts are the result of rapid population growth, poverty, famine, lack of education, unemployment, and many other reasons, which are increasing tension between people of different ethnical groups, religion, and race. This situation seems to foster in the future; therefore, more countries, cities, and villages will be destroyed, as it happened in Bosnia, Sri Lanka, or Rwanda. The ethnical and religious conflict between Israel and Pakistan is a vivid example of everlasting conflict. As a result, many countries would be destroyed, and a lot of people would suffer from steadily increasing pressures of other ethnical and religious groups.
Muller (2008) argues that ethnical conflicts, as a potential desire for ethnic diversity, “will continue to shape the world in the twenty-first century.” Research asserts that peace and stability in Europe today was gained because of the successful ethno-nationalist project. This tendency will continue to characterize the coming decades. Violent separation of people because of religious beliefs and ethnical identities are the main cause of wars. Peace and stability should be achieved through different peaceful programs, democratic governmental initiatives, and policies. Conflicting countries and nations, as a rule, are unable to solve problems on their own. The available information asserts that the United States of America is carrying its peaceful policy throughout the world helping these countries gain peace and stability in these regions.
The Escalation of Civil War in the International System
Nowadays, the escalation of civil war is observed throughout the world. It is worth noting that national, ethnic, and religious conflicts often lead to contemporary civil wars in many countries worldwide. Thus, civil wars may be viewed by the international law like a policymaking in accordance with specific political situation and regions. Civil wars are bringing terror and tragedy to people in the local environment (Lounsbery, & Pearson, 2009). Domestic warfare process is the main issue of every civil war, where neighbors are killing each other and children are losing their parents. Research asserts that civil wars have been continuing since the Cold War period and will take place in the next decades. The examples of civil wars could be internal conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, and Lebanon, just to mention a few. Many scholars and researchers have turned their attention to interstate violence to understand its reasons and consequences better, in order to find out the way out and prevent them in the future.
There are many reasons that can contribute to the outbreak of violence in different countries, such as economic, political, ethnical, and religious factors. Lounsbery and Pearson (2009) in their book Civil Wars: Internal Struggles, Global Consequences acknowledge, “In the case of civil war, the distinction between military versus civilian killing becomes even less tenable than the international warfare.”
It is important to figure out methods to facilitate these conflicts. Many scholars note that civil wars are violence against the recognized government. As a rule, civil war is an armed conflict. Civil wars are likely to occur in developing countries, which do not have stable governments, democracy, economy, and other features that have been developed over centuries in Western countries. According to research, there are different factors that lead to the escalation of civil wars in different parts of the world. One of these factors, for example, is the isolation and containment of civil wars in relations to the regional and international systems (Lounsbery, & Pearson, 2009). This tendency is supposed to grow in the future, when local governments are seen to support private militia groups.
It is important to note the role of NATO in solving civil war conflicts in different parts of the world. For example, NATO troops took direct military action in Bosnia and Kosovo with the aim to protect civilians and establish peace in these countries. Thus, NATO troops foster peace in various parts of the globe. It is evident that the escalation of civil wars would not stop in the next decade because of the tension that exist inside different states in economic, political, military, and religious spheres.
It is a daunting task for all nations to find out methods and techniques to solve different conflicts between people nationally and internationally, in order to prevent wars. It is a challenging problem, which does not have a universal decision. Moreover, contemporary world brings with it more sophisticated kinds of wars, such as cyber warfare, ethnic conflicts involving issues of nationalism and religion, the escalation of Civil War in the international system, which will take place globally during next decades.